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high pressure oxidation refractory

  • Pressure oxidation Wikipedia

    Feb 12, 2016· Pressure Oxidation is a process for extracting gold from refractory ore.. The most common refractory ores are pyrite and arsenopyrite, which are sulfide ores that trap the gold within them.Refractory ores require pre-treatment before the gold can be adequately extracted. The pressure oxidation process is used to prepare such ores for conventional gold extraction processes such as

  • PRESSURE OXIDATION OF REFRACTORY GOLD ORES: THE

    Pressure Oxidation Pressure oxidation is employed to liberate gold and silver in refractory sulfide concentrates often and ores. The main pressure oxidation products from iron sulfide minerals are sulfuric acid (and metal sulfates) and hematite. Depending on the conditions within the autoclave, acid containing iron compounds can be formed.

  • Amursk Pressure Oxidation (POX) Hub Expansion Project

    Challenges. Polymetal International Inc. is undertaking the Amursk POX Hub Expansion to recover gold from double-refractory (high carbon) sulphide concentrate from five of their mines in Siberia, Eastern Russia, and East Kazakhstan. The project will double Polymetal’s concentrate treatment capacity to 250,000-300,000 t/a of refractory gold concentrate.

  • (PDF) Pressure oxidation of double refractory gold

    The pressure oxidation approach that allows obtaining high gold recovery from double refractory materials was proposed. $/7$ : The chemical compositions of the concentrates

  • PRESSURE LEACHING RPMGlobal

    90%. High temperature oxidation is critical in these designs to minimize elemental sulfur formation and limit cyanide consumption. A general flowsheet demonstrating the unit operations of pressure oxidation of The most recent sulfide pressure oxidation plant development has

  • high pressure oxidation refractory

    nbsp 0183 32 Pressure oxidation Albion process The refractory ore treatment processes may be preceded by concentration usually sulfide flotation Roasting is used to oxidize both the sulfur and organic carbon at high temperatures using air and/or oxygen Bio-oxidation.

  • Gold extraction Wikipedia

    Pressure oxidation; Albion process; The refractory ore treatment processes may be preceded by concentration (usually sulfide flotation). Roasting is used to oxidize both the sulfur and organic carbon at high temperatures using air and/or oxygen. Bio-oxidation involves the use of bacteria that promote oxidation reactions in an aqueous environment.

  • Autoclave Technology Hatch

    Autoclaves are a preferred component of the process for many large-scale sulfidic refractory bodies, including such processes as Au-Ag pressure oxidation; Cu-Ag-Au pressure oxidation; Ni-Co pressure leach; Ni-Co-Cu concentrate pressure oxidative leach; and TiO 2 HCL pressure leach.

  • Sun High Pressure Oxidation Of Refractory Gold Minerals

    Sun High Pressure Oxidation Of Refractory Gold Minerals. Biooxidation Biooxidation uses sulfur consuming bacteria in a water solution to remove sulfur Pressure oxidation Utilizes oxygen and heat under pressure in a liquid medium to effect oxidation of sulfur by way of a controlled chemical reaction High pressure autoclaves.

  • Pressure Oxidation Caldera Engineering

    Pressure Oxidation (POX) is a process used to extract gold, copper, zinc, molybdenum, and uranium from refractory ore bodies. The POX process utilizes elevated temperatures (roughly 230 degrees Celsius), elevated pressures (roughly 35 bar or 510 psi), and oxygen to liberate the minerals from refractory

  • Pressure Oxidation Mining SGS

    Pressure oxidation (POX), high pressure oxidation (HiPOX) and ACTIVOX autoclave leaching are viable industry-standard technologies used to recover gold and other accessory metals. Read more The process is particularly well suited for treating refractory gold ores, which give low recovery when directly leached with cyanide.

  • High Pressure Acid Leach & Pressure Oxidation

    High Pressure Acid Leach (HPAL) and Pressure Oxidation (POX) testing services provide a unique opportunity to evaluate and optimise the most economically viable process routes for the recovery of most metals such as nickel from lateritic ores and gold from refractory ores. HPAL and POX are commercially proven and tested extraction

  • PRESSURE OXIDATION OF PYRITE-ARSENOPYRITE

    PRESSURE OXIDATION OF PYRITE-ARSENOPYRITE REFRACTORY GOLD CONCENTRATE Lauri RUSANEN, Jari AROMAA, Olof FORSEN Aalto University, Department of Materials Science. P.O. Box 16200, Aalto, Espoo, Finland, [email protected] Abstract: Refractory gold ores have poor gold recoveries with direct cyanide leaching. Typically the

  • Research on chlorination leaching of pressure-oxidized

    Jun 01, 2020· Biological oxidation, chemical oxidation, pressure oxidation, and roasting oxidation are now using for the pretreatment of refractory gold concentrates (Li et al., 2009; Su et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2019), among which the pressure oxidation is the most promising (Zhang et al., 2016b). The other alternative is to search for non-cyanide lixiviants.

  • Pressure Oxidation of a Refractory Sulfide Concentrate and

    Significant advances have taken place in the treatment of refractory gold ores and concentrates during the past decade. In sulfide ores, pyrite is the most common host mineral for gold. Studies by Gasparrini (1983) showed that gold occurs in pyrite as native gold or electrum in all sizes and forms. Arsenopyrite is probably the second most common host for gold and forms similar associations

  • Sun High Pressure Oxidation Of Refractory Gold Minerals

    Sun High Pressure Oxidation Of Refractory Gold Minerals. Biooxidation Biooxidation uses sulfur consuming bacteria in a water solution to remove sulfur Pressure oxidation Utilizes oxygen and heat under pressure in a liquid medium to effect oxidation of sulfur by way of a controlled chemical reaction High pressure autoclaves.

  • pressure oxidation Archives International Mining

    “Pressure oxidation was selected as the most feasible processing technology for double refractory ores. It is able to achieve gold recoveries of 96% by utilising high temperatures, elevated pressure and oxygen to recover encapsulated gold, while conventional cyanidation methods would result in sub-optimal recovery rates of 20-40%.

  • Selective oxidation of refractory sulfur compounds for the

    pressure within residence time of 30 min. Hydrogen peroxide con-sumption to make peroxyacetic acid corresponds to half of the total operating cost. After the oxidation step, sulfone separation was con-ducted through liquid/liquid extraction to raffinate fraction with lower sulfur amount and extract fraction with high sulfur concentration.

  • The Leachox™ Refractory Gold Process The Testing, Design

    oxidation plant currently operating worldwide and represents a major breakthrough in the treatment of traditionally difficult to process refractory gold ores. he process offers a low T capital and operating cost route, but with similar high gold recoveries to bio -oxidation. INTRODUCTION . The Problem of Refractory Ores

  • High pressure oxidation of precursor alloys American

    "High-Pressure Oxidation of Refractory Metals--Experimental Methods and Interpretation" W. M. Fassel, Jr. et al., 2 Metalkde, 64(4) 286-295 (1973) no month. "The Internal Oxidation of Silver Alloys at High Pressures and in Atomic Oxygen" D. Stockel et al. AFSC Oxidation of Tungsten and other Refractory Metals, ML-TR-64-162 (Apr. 1965).

  • oxidation of refractory minerals

    Oxidation of a refractory gold concentrate using pressure The gold group at SGS Minerals Metallurgy Malaga, Western Australia has conducted a test programme in which a refractory gold ore sample was beneficiated by benchscale floatation to generate a bulk sulphide concentrate grading 10.6 g/t Au, 13.1% S, 11.4% Fe, 0.18% C and 2.36% As

  • Oxidation behavior of a refractory NbCrMo Ta TiZr alloy

    oxidation of conventional refractory alloys [14]. Heavy alloying of refractory metals with other elements, such as Al, Cr, Ti, Hf, etc., has been shown to be quite effective in obtaining remarkably improved high-temperature oxidation resistance for at least two reasons: (i) it reduces oxygen solubility and diffusivity in the matrix material and

  • Polymetal to expand pressure oxidation gold treatment in

    “Pressure oxidation was selected as the most feasible processing technology for double refractory ores. It is able to achieve gold recoveries of 96% by utilising high temperatures, elevated pressure and oxygen to recover encapsulated gold, while conventional cyanidation methods would result in sub-optimal recovery rates of 20-40%.

  • (PDF) Conditions and Design Considerations for Maximising

    pressure oxidation for refractory carbonaceous ore where both ‘preg-robbing’ carbon and carbonate can be removed from the product, producing higher gold recoveries than

  • pressure oxidation Archives International Mining

    “Pressure oxidation was selected as the most feasible processing technology for double refractory ores. It is able to achieve gold recoveries of 96% by utilising high temperatures, elevated pressure and oxygen to recover encapsulated gold, while conventional cyanidation methods would result in sub-optimal recovery rates of 20-40%.

  • High pressure oxidation of precursor alloys American

    "High-Pressure Oxidation of Refractory Metals--Experimental Methods and Interpretation" W. M. Fassel, Jr. et al., 2 Metalkde, 64(4) 286-295 (1973) no month. "The Internal Oxidation of Silver Alloys at High Pressures and in Atomic Oxygen" D. Stockel et al. AFSC Oxidation of Tungsten and other Refractory Metals, ML-TR-64-162 (Apr. 1965).

  • The Leachox™ Refractory Gold Process The Testing, Design

    oxidation plant currently operating worldwide and represents a major breakthrough in the treatment of traditionally difficult to process refractory gold ores. he process offers a low T capital and operating cost route, but with similar high gold recoveries to bio -oxidation. INTRODUCTION . The Problem of Refractory Ores

  • Industrial Wastewater: Wet Air Oxidation of Refractory

    Wet oxidation is the oxidation of soluble or suspended components in an aqueous environment using oxygen as the oxidizing agent. When air is used as the source of oxygen, the process is referred to as wet air oxidation (WAO). Oxidation reactions occur at temperatures of 150-320°C (275-608°F), and at pressures from 10-220 bar (150-3200 psi).

  • Research on chlorination leaching of pressure-oxidized

    Jun 01, 2020· Biological oxidation, chemical oxidation, pressure oxidation, and roasting oxidation are now using for the pretreatment of refractory gold concentrates (Li et al., 2009; Su et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2019), among which the pressure oxidation is the most promising (Zhang et al., 2016b). The other alternative is to search for non-cyanide lixiviants.

  • Improved recovery of a low-grade refractory gold ore using

    Jul 01, 2014· An overview of the role of pressure oxidation in treating refractory gold ores was given and subsequent developments have been highlighted. Examples of pressure oxidation plants commissioned since the mid-1980’s and a brief description of their operation can be found in the article by Marsden and House .

  • Polymetal to expand pressure oxidation gold treatment in

    “Pressure oxidation was selected as the most feasible processing technology for double refractory ores. It is able to achieve gold recoveries of 96% by utilising high temperatures, elevated pressure and oxygen to recover encapsulated gold, while conventional cyanidation methods would result in sub-optimal recovery rates of 20-40%.

  • oxidation of refractory minerals

    Oxidation of a refractory gold concentrate using pressure The gold group at SGS Minerals Metallurgy Malaga, Western Australia has conducted a test programme in which a refractory gold ore sample was beneficiated by benchscale floatation to generate a bulk sulphide concentrate grading 10.6 g/t Au, 13.1% S, 11.4% Fe, 0.18% C and 2.36% As

  • Oxidation behavior of a refractory NbCrMo Ta TiZr alloy

    oxidation of conventional refractory alloys [14]. Heavy alloying of refractory metals with other elements, such as Al, Cr, Ti, Hf, etc., has been shown to be quite effective in obtaining remarkably improved high-temperature oxidation resistance for at least two reasons: (i) it reduces oxygen solubility and diffusivity in the matrix material and

  • Pressure Oxidation of a Refractory Sulfide Concentrate and

    Significant advances have taken place in the treatment of refractory gold ores and concentrates during the past decade. In sulfide ores, pyrite is the most common host mineral for gold. Studies by Gasparrini (1983) showed that gold occurs in pyrite as native gold or electrum in all sizes and forms. Arsenopyrite is probably the second most common host for gold and forms similar associations

  • Selective oxidation of refractory sulfur compounds for the

    pressure within residence time of 30 min. Hydrogen peroxide con-sumption to make peroxyacetic acid corresponds to half of the total operating cost. After the oxidation step, sulfone separation was con-ducted through liquid/liquid extraction to raffinate fraction with lower sulfur amount and extract fraction with high sulfur concentration.

  • Moderate-Temperature, High-Pressure Oxidation

    Moderate-Temperature, High-Pressure Oxidation In wet air oxidation, organic materials in a dilute aqueous mixture axe oxidized at elevated temperatures and pressures. Supercritical water oxidation operates at still higher temperatures and pressures (above the critical point of water at which hydrocarbons, for example, are highly soluble).

  • An acidic pressure oxidation pre-treatment of refractory

    Roasting is the only commercialised process in Zimbabwe for the pre-treatment of refractory gold feedstocks for the subsequent cyanidation leaching. This process results in only about 75% gold recovery and is characterised by high gold values in the residue. A pressure oxidation process in an autoclave has been evaluated as an alternative. The process resulted in substantially higher gold

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